数字化转型的九个要素

2021年08月23日 99 本文共16424字,预计阅读时间47分钟

原文标题:The Nine Elements of Digital Transformation  数字化转型的九个要素

猿小六注:该文章2014年发表于《麻省理工斯隆管理评论》,但是如果你了解数字化转型,今天再去读这篇文章,你会发现这依然是一片充满真知灼见的文章,里面的理论和观点应用去任何一家企业的数字化转型仍然毫不过时。这个世界最终留下的不是最新的东西,而是这种最有价值的思想。

In-depth research with executives at a wide range of companies shows how managers can use technology to redefine their businesses.

对许多公司高管的深入研究显示,管理人员可以利用技术重新定义他们的业务。

George Westerman, Didier Bonnet, and Andrew McAfee

January 07, 2014

Digital transformation— the use of technology to radically improve performance or reach of enterprises — is a hot topic for companies across the globe. Executives in all industries are using digital advances such as analytics, mobility, social media and smart embedded devices as well as improving their use of traditional technologies such as ERP to change customer relationships, internal processes and value propositions. Other executives, seeing how fast digital technology disrupted media industries in the past decade, know they need to pay attention to changes in their industries now.

数字转型——利用技术从根本上提高企业的业绩或影响力——是全球企业的热门话题。所有行业的高管都在使用数字技术,如分析、移动性、社交媒体和智能嵌入式设备,以及改进传统技术(如ERP)的使用来以改变客户关系、内部流程和价值主张。其他高管看到了数字技术在过去十年对媒体行业的快速颠覆,知道他们现在开始需要关注当前行业的变化。

Where can you look for digital transformation opportunities? We interviewed 157 executives in 50 companies to find out. These companies are large — typically $1 billion or more in annual sales — and spanned 15 countries. To provide balanced perspectives, approximately half of the interviewees were business leaders such as CEOs, line of business managers, marketing heads or COOs, while the other half were IT and technology leaders.

你可以在哪里寻找数字化转型的机会?为了找出答案,我们采访了50家公司的157名高管。这些公司规模很大——通常年销售额在10亿美元以上且横跨15个国家。为了提供平衡的视角,大约一半的受访者是商业领袖,如首席执行官、业务经理、营销主管或COO,而另一半是IT和技术领袖。

The companies we interviewed are moving forward with digital transformation at varying paces and experiencing varying levels of success. Some are transforming many parts of their organizations while others are still doing only the basics. Others are encountering organizational issues or other challenges that prevent them from transforming successfully.

我们采访的公司正在以不同的速度推进数字化转型,并经历着不同程度的成功。一些公司正在改变其组织的许多部分,而另一些公司仍然还在做基本的工作。另一些人则遇到组织问题或其他阻碍他们成功转型的挑战。

But one thing we found was clear. The best companies — those we call Digirati — combine digital activity with strong leadership to turn technology into transformation. This is what we call Digital Maturity. Companies vary in theirdigital maturity, and those that are more mature outperform those that are not.

但有一件事我们很清楚。最好的公司——我们称之为Digirati——都将数字活动与强大的领导力结合起来,将技术转化为变革。这就是我们所说的数字化成熟度。各个公司在数字领域的成熟度各不相同,那些成熟度高的公司的表现要好于那些成熟度低的公司。

Leading digital change requires managers to have a vision of how to transform their company for a digital world. So, where can you look? What digital activities represent good opportunities for your business?

领导数字化变革需要管理者对如何将公司转变为数字化世界有所远见。那么,你能去哪里寻找呢?哪些数字活动能给你的业务带来很好的机会?

Analysis of the interviews shows clear patterns. Executives are digitally transforming three key areas of their enterprises: customer experience, operational processes and business models. And each of these three pillars has three different elements that are changing. These nine elements form a set of building blocks for digital transformation.

对访谈的分析显示出清晰的模式。高管们正在用数字化变革企业的三个关键领域:客户体验、运营流程和商业模式。这三个领域中的每一个都有三个不同的元素在变化。这九个元素构成了一组数字化转型的基石。

Currently, no company in our sample has fully transformed all nine elements. Rather, executives are selecting among these building blocks to move forward in the manner that they believe is right for their organizations. In this article, we highlight some of the ways that companies we studied are changing these nine areas.

目前,在我们的样本中,还没有一家公司完全改变了所有九个元素。相反,高管们在这些因素中进行选择,用他们认为对企业来说正确的方式前进。在本文中,我们将重点介绍我们所研究的公司正在改变这九个领域的一些方式。

Transforming Customer Experience  客户体验转型

The three major building blocks with which companies are digitally transforming customer experience are customer understanding, top-line growth and customer touch points.

企业通过数字化转型改造客户体验的三个因素是客户理解、顶线增长和客户触点。

Customer Understanding  客户理解

Companies are starting to take advantage of previous investments in systems to gain an in-depth understanding of specific geographies and market segments. Some are exploring social media to understand what makes customers happy — and what leads to customer dissatisfaction.

企业开始利用以前在系统上的投资,以获得对特定地区和市场细分的深入了解。一些企业正在探索社交媒体,以了解什么能让客户高兴,什么又会导致客户不满。

In addition, companies are learning to promote their brands more effectively through digital media. Companies are also building new online communities to advise and build loyalty with clients in medical, real estate or financial services products. Others are building products that improve branding in lifestyle communities.

此外,企业正在学习通过数字媒体更有效地推广自己的品牌。企业还在建立新的在线社区,为医疗、房地产或金融服务产品的客户提供建议,并建立客户忠诚度。另一些企业则在打造产品通过生活方式社区来提升品牌。

Many organizations are building analytics capability to understand customers in more detail. Some insurance companies, for example, are improving their portfolios and cost structures through analytics-based underwriting and pricing. Other companies are conducting analytics-based experiments to drive customer behavior. In one case, a restaurant company is actively conducting experiments in pricing and promotion across a set of franchised stores. The experiment dynamically adjusts product prices in response to demand, weather, inventory levels and proximity to closing time.

许多企业正在构建分析能力,以更详细地了解客户。例如,一些保险公司正在通过基于分析的承保和定价来改善它们的投资组合和成本结构。其他公司正在进行基于分析的实验,以推动客户行为。有一个例子是,一家餐饮公司正在一系列加盟店中积极开展定价和促销实验。该实验根据需求、天气、库存水平和临近关门时间动态调整产品价格。

Top-Line Growth  顶线增长

Companies are using technology to enhance in-person sales conversations. For example, financial services companies are using tablet-based presentations instead of paper-based slide decks to make sales pitches. Insurance firms are introducing mobile tools to help sales people and customers engage in analytics-based planning. A medical device sales force is replacing in-person interactions with digital interactions. When visiting a doctor’s office, a salesperson leaves an iPad with video and other information on new products. The aim is to get the doctor’s attention — without inconveniencing the physician or impacting busy office schedules — in order to obtain a 10-minute conversation when the salesperson returns to retrieve the iPad.

企业正在使用技术来加强面对面的销售对话。例如,金融服务公司正在使用基于平板电脑的演示,而不是基于纸张的幻灯片来进行推销。保险公司正在引入移动工具来帮助销售人员和客户进行基于分析的计划。一个医疗设备销售团队正在用数字互动取代面对面的互动。当拜访医生的办公室时,销售人员会留下一个iPad,上面有新产品的视频和其他信息。这样做的目的是引起医生的注意——既不给医生带来不便,也不影响繁忙的办公室日程安排——以便在售货员回来取回iPad时与医生进行10分钟的交谈。

Better understanding helps businesses to transform the sales experience. Companies are integrating customer purchasing data to provide more personalized sales and customer service or even to offer customized product packages. A hospitality company engaged in location-based marketing uses analytics to send personalized mobile coupons to customers as they near a facility; the company can then track uptake in real time. A mortgage company is setting up a CRM strategy to link customers to local real estate references. This system proposes new offers in real time via the Internet.

更好的理解有助于企业转变销售体验。公司正在整合客户购买数据,以提供更个性化的销售和客户服务,甚至提供定制的产品包。一家从事基于位置营销的酒店公司利用分析技术,在客户靠近酒店时向他们发送个性化的移动优惠券;然后,该公司可以实时跟踪销量。一家抵押贷款公司正在制定一项CRM策略,将客户与当地房地产公司联系起来。该系统通过互联网实时提出新的报价。

Other businesses are using concept stores as flagships for their digital selling innovations. For instance, a mortgage company offers investors an integrated process combining real estate and bank services with external services — and showcases the overall process in a concept megastore.

其他企业也将概念店作为其数字化销售创新的旗舰店。例如,一家抵押贷款公司向投资者提供一个综合流程,将房地产和银行服务与外部服务结合起来,并在一个概念大卖场中展示整个流程。

Some companies try to make life easier for the customer, simplifying their processes through a digital plug-in. One retailer automatically loads a customer’s last online shopping list into its e-commerce site. This streamlines the shopping process, allowing customers extra time to look at other products. Customers can then decide whether to use home delivery or a drive-through service with a specific pick-up time.

一些公司试图让客户的生活更轻松,通过数字化插件简化他们的流程。零售商自动将客户的最后一个在线购物清单加载到其电子商务网站。这简化了购物流程,让顾客有更多的时间看其他产品。然后,顾客可以决定是使用送货上门服务还是带有特定取货时间的免下车服务。

Customer Touch Points  客户触点

Customer service can be enhanced significantly by digital initiatives. For example, a bank established a Twitter account to answer client complaints quickly, helping customers avoid going physically to a branch. This digital initiative also leveraged an expert community, allowing crowdsourcing with several employees and other customers.

数字化方案可以显著地提高客户服务。例如,一家银行建立了一个Twitter账户来快速回应客户的投诉,帮助客户避免亲自去银行。这个数字化方案还使用了一个专家社区,允许一些员工和其他客户进行众包活动。

Companies with multiple channels to the customer are experiencing pressure to provide an integrated experience. Multichannel services require envisioning and implementing change across customer experience and internal operational processes. Many retailers now offer home shopping with the option to receive products by mail or in a store. However, one retail executive described customers being angry that customer service representatives in a store could not access online order history.

有多种客户渠道的企业正面临着提供综合体验的压力。多渠道服务需要在客户体验和内部运营过程中有所预见和实施变化。许多零售商现在提供通过快递或者在商店接收产品的在家购物。然而,一位零售业高管描述说,客户对商店的客服代表无法查询在线订单的历史记录而感到愤怒。

Several companies in our study are offering self-service via digital tools. These tools allow the customer to save time, while saving the company money. Many companies are now offering customer apps to enhance customer touch points. In one hospitality company, smartphone apps are linked to the customer’s profile, enabling integration across SMS, apps and social media efforts. A media company offers apps with geo-localization and augmented reality to help customers find interesting places to visit and provide special offers via vouchers and e-couponing.

我们研究的几家企业正在通过数字化工具提供自助服务。这些工具为客户节省了时间,同时也为公司节省了资金。许多公司现在通过提供客户APP来增强客户触点体验。在一家酒店公司,智能手机应用程序与客户的资料相关联,实现了短信、APP和社交媒体的整合。一家媒体公司提供带有地理定位和增强现实功能的应用程序,帮助客户找到有趣的地方,并通过抵用券和电子优惠券提供特别优惠。

Transforming Operational Processes  运营流程转型

Although transformed customer experiences are the most visible — and arguably the most exciting — aspects of transformation, companies are also realizing very strong benefits from transforming internal processes through process digitization, worker enablement and performance management.

虽然转型后的客户体验是转型过程中最明显的——也可以说是最令人兴奋的方面,企业也正在通过流程数字化、员工赋能和绩效管理来实现内部流程的变革,从而实现非常强大的效益。

Process Digitization  流程数字化

Automation can enable companies to refocus their people on more strategic tasks. A manufacturer has begun to centralize the HR function, allowing economies of scale through self-service while freeing HR people to “focus on enlarging manager skills, rather than counting days off.” A specialty materials company has automated many R&D processes. Automation allows researchers to focus on innovation and creativity rather than repetitive efforts. It also creates streams of data that can be useful in later data mining efforts.

自动化可以使公司让员工重新集中在更具战略性的任务上。一家制造商已经开始将人力资源职能集中起来,通过自助服务实现规模经济,同时让人力资源人员“专注于提高管理技能,而不是计算休假天数”。一家特种材料公司已经实现了许多研发过程的自动化。自动化使研究人员能够专注于创新和创造力,而不是重复的努力。它还创建了在以后的数据挖掘工作中有用的数据流。

One paint manufacturer has created fully automated plants that significantly reduce labor requirements, improve product quality and enhance environmental, health and safety performance. An apparel company has moved to digital design processes when collaborating with manufacturing partners. Going digital eliminates most need to ship physical prototypes back and forth, reducing the product development lifecycle by 30%.

一家涂料制造商已经建立了完全自动化的工厂,大大降低了劳动力需求,提高了产品质量,并提高了环境、健康和安全性能。一家服装公司在与制造伙伴合作时已经转向了数字设计流程。数字化消除了大部分来回运送物理原型的需要,将产品开发周期缩短了30%。

Worker Enablement  员工赋能

Individual-level work has, in essence, been virtualized — separating the work process from the location of the work. A financial services business rearranged its headquarters so that nobody had an assigned desk, even the CEO. Employees now work from home one or two days per week and, when they are in the office, sit near people with whom they are temporarily collaborating. Meanwhile, the company’s collaboration and networking tools allow employees to talk with anyone in the organization from wherever they are sitting. This is setting the stage for further changes related to globalization.

从本质上说,个人层面的工作已经被虚拟化了——将工作过程与工作地点分开。一家金融服务企业重新安排了总部,这样就没有人有专门的办公桌,甚至连首席执行官也不例外。员工现在每周在家工作一到两天,当他们在办公室时,坐在与他们暂时合作的人附近。与此同时,该公司的协作和网络工具允许员工与组织中的任何人交谈,无论他们坐在哪里。这为与全球化相关的进一步变革奠定了基础。

The tools that virtualize individual work, while implemented for cost reasons, have become powerful enablers for knowledge sharing. Salespeople and frontline employees, for example, are beginning to benefit from collaborative tools in which they can identify experts and get questions answered in real time. They are also increasingly gaining access to a single, global view of the company’s interactions with a customer.

由于成本原因,虚拟化个人工作的工具已经成为知识共享的强大推动者。例如,销售人员和一线员工开始受益于协作工具,他们可以识别专家并实时得到问题的回答。他们也越来越多地获得公司单一、全球的视角与客户互动。

Performance Management  绩效管理

Transactional systems give executives deeper insights into products, regions and customers, allowing decisions to be made on real data and not on assumptions. This is happening in both internal processes and customer-facing processes. The level of detail is also increasing, allowing managers to compare status across sites or reallocate product manufacturing capacity in ways they could not do before.

交易系统让高管们对产品、地区和客户有了更深入的了解,允许根据真实数据而不是假设做出决策。这发生在内部流程和面向客户的流程中。细节的水平也在提高,允许经理们在不同的工厂之间比较状态,或者以以前无法做到的方式重新分配产品生产能力。

Beyond being better informed, digital transformation is actually changing the process of strategic decision-making. Top executives in a medical device manufacturer used the company’s existing collaboration tools to extend strategic planning sessions from 12 people to more than 300 of the business’s top managers. This enabled better input into the process and better uptake of the vision after decisions were made.

除了更好地了解信息,数字化转型实际上正在改变战略决策的过程。一家医疗设备制造商的高管利用公司现有的协作工具,将战略规划会议从12人扩展到300多名企业高管。这使得在做出决定后能够更好地输入流程并更好地理解愿景。

Transforming Business Models  商业模式转型

Companies are not only changing how their functions work, but also redefining how functions interact and even evolving the boundaries and activities of the firm.

公司不仅仅正在改变其职能部门的工作方式,而且还在重新定义职能部门之间的相互作用方式,甚至在公司的边界和活动上进行演变。

The three building blocks of this transformation are digital modifications to the business, the creation of new digital businesses, and digital globalization.

这一转型的三个组成部分是业务的数字化变革、新数字化业务的创建和数字全球化。

Digitally Modified Businesses  业务的数字化变革

One media executive said: “We’ve realized that if we don’t transform the way we do business, we’re going to die. It’s not about changing the way we do technology but changing the way we do business.” The company is finding ways to augment physical with digital offerings and to use digital to share content across organizational silos.

一位媒体高管表示:“我们意识到,如果我们不改变经营方式,我们就会死去。这不是要改变我们做技术的方式,而是要改变我们做生意的方式。”该公司正在寻找方法,通过数字产品来增强实体,并利用数字技术跨组织共享内容。

A grocery company is staying true to its traditional business but using digital to transform a new growth business. As one executive reported, “After two years, our e-commerce platform is bringing us 20% of our new clients and our traditional clients are consuming 13% more on average.”

一家食品杂货公司在保持传统业务不变的同时,利用数字技术转变了一项新的增长业务。一位高管表示:“经过两年,我们的电商平台为我们带来了20%的新客户,传统客户的消费平均增加了13%。

”Other businesses are building digital or service wrappers around traditional products. A national post office is creating a free digital mailbox attached to each physical mail address that companies can use as a substitute for a person’s physical mailbox. A business credit company is developing a digital business for some credit products that requires less involvement than their traditional high-touch offerings.

其它企业正在围绕传统产品构建数字化或服务化的包装。一家国家邮局正在创建一个免费的数字邮箱,附在每个物理邮件地址上,公司可以用它来代替个人的物理邮箱。一家商业信贷公司正在为一些信贷产品开发一项数字化业务,与传统的高接触式信贷产品相比,这种业务参与性要求更低。

New Digital Businesses  新数字化业务

Companies are also introducing digital products that complement traditional products. For example, a sports apparel manufacturer started selling GPS and other digital devices that can track and report on a customer’s workout. Other companies are changing business models by reshaping their boundaries through digital. A mortgage company is moving from being a link in the value chain to being a global assembler of investment products. An airport authority is aiming to become the owner of a traveler’s end-to-end process by providing an integrated multichannel experience, including information on airplane traffic and reservations, duty-free shopping promotions and other benefits.

各公司还推出了数字产品来补充传统产品。例如,一家运动服装制造商开始销售GPS和其他数字设备,这些设备可以跟踪并报告客户的锻炼情况。其它公司正在通过数字化重塑业务界限来改变商业模式。抵押贷款公司正从价值链中的一环,转变为投资产品的全球组装商。一家机场管理层的目标是,通过提供飞机流量和预订信息、免税购物促销和其他优惠等综合多渠道体验,成为旅客端到端流程的所有者。

Digital Globalization  数字全球化

Companies are increasingly transforming from multinational to truly global operations. Digital technology coupled with integrated information is allowing businesses to gain global synergies while remaining locally responsive. These companies benefit from global shared services for finance, HR and even core capabilities like manufacturing and design. Global shared services promote efficiency and reduce risk. They even promote global flexibility. One manufacturer can shift production around the globe with only a few days’ notice in response to interruptions or excess demand.

企业正越来越多地从跨国公司向真正的全球运营转变。数字化技术与综合信息相结合,使企业能够获得全球协同效应,同时保持对当地的响应。这些公司受益于财务、人力资源、甚至制造和设计等核心能力的全球共享服务。全球共享服务提高了效率,降低了风险。它们甚至促进了全球灵活性。一家制造商可以在全球范围内转移生产,而只需要提前几天通知,以应对供应中断或需求过剩。

The Take-Away  写在最后

Digital transformation requires strong leadership to drive change. But it also requires a vision for what parts of the company you want to transform. Companies in all industries and regions are experimenting with — and benefiting from — digital transformation. Whether it is in the way individuals work and collaborate, the way business processes are executed within and across organizational boundaries, or in the way a company understands and serves customers, digital technology provides a wealth of opportunity.

数字化转型需要强有力的领导来推动变革。但它也需要你对公司的哪些部分想要转型有所远见。所有行业和地区的企业都在尝试数字化转型,并从中受益。无论是个人工作和协作的方式,还是在组织内部和跨组织边界执行业务流程的方式,还是公司理解和服务客户的方式,数字化技术都提供了大量的机会。

Focus is important; no company we studied is transforming all nine areas at once. But the best-managed firms are constantly identifying new ways to redefine the way they work in the new digital era.

专注是非常重要的,我们研究过的任何一家公司都没有同时改变所有9个领域。但管理最好的公司也在不断寻找新方法,重新定义他们在新数字化时代的工作方式。